Questions and Answers
1. What is Mondlango?
Mondlango is the compound word of Monda Lango, its initial name is Ulango. It is an international language. It belongs to all mankind, and not to any one nation alone. At present there are thousands of languages in the world. Difference of language greatly hinders the exchange of information and understanding among nations. Along with the rapid development of globalization, the problem of the language barrier has been highlighted. The best way to solve this problem is to use an international language. Monda is not intended to supplant or replace any national language. Its purpose is only to be a common means of communication for people of different languages. The two advantages of Monda are neutrality and ease of learning. No national language (including English) possesses either of these advantages.
2.: What will the world be like when all people speak the same language?
We are not proposing a single language, we are
proposing that people adopt a second language. Which means we won't have to
learn three, four or more languages. We'll simply learn the International
language which will be the common language, the real bridge for people of
different countries. People would only have to learn the international language
apart from their own native languages. As a consequence, less prominent
languages, whose limited reach might lead to their disappearance, would be
saved from extinction.
3. Where do the names Ulango, Mondlango and Monda come from?
The word Ulango is the short for "
4. Isn't English an international language?
English, as the most popular language at present, isn't
suitable for use as an international language. The reasons are, firstly, that
English is a national language. No national language is suitable for
international use. Why? Because if we accept a national language as
international, that gives enormous political and cultural advantages to the
country or countries for which the chosen language is the native tongue.
Consequently this solution is often unacceptable to the others. Secondly,
learning English is very difficult for most Asian people. For example, many
5. English has already become the international language on Internet. Is this true?
Yes, English is the major language on Internet at present, but this situation will change soon. The percentage of English web pages is reducing progressively, and web pages of other languages, especially Chinese, are increasing. In 2009, there are more than 300 million Chinese netizens. Both English and Chinese are national languages , but Monda is a neutral language.
6. A country where the percentage of people understanding English is high, is more modernized. Is this true?
No! Some countries, such as
7. But isn't Monda an artificial language?
Of course it is. So
is every language in the world. The word
"artificial" means "made by human beings”, and every language
has been created by human beings. The difference between national and
artificial languages is that a national language is not made scientifically ,
but has many irregularities and unreasonable factors, whereas an artificial
language is constructed systematically and scientifically, absorbing the good
points and removing the shortcomings of national languages. In fact, Indonesian
is a constructed language made by a Dutch missionary in the 1920s on the basis
of synthesizing some local languages. Now this language has become the national
8. There is already Esperanto, why do we need Monda?
This is because there are some defects in Esperanto:
(1) Esperanto does not use the letters q, w, x and y, but does have the inconvenience of six accented letters --- c^, g^, h^, j^, s^ and u~ - which (with the possible exception of the last) are not used in any other language. Because they are peculiar to Esperanto they have to be specially provided just for printing Esperanto. Although the problems this causes are not insuperable, the accents remain a nuisance in various ways, and hinder acceptance of Esperanto. Theoretically the circumflex can be replaced by the letter h, but Esperantists themselves use this alternative very reluctantly, as the result looks very heavy and unattractive.
(2) In Esperanto there is an ending -n for the accusative case. That makes the word order more flexible, but complicates grammar, and too much flexibility reduces standardization . For example, some people like to use the word order of Subject+Verb+Object, others use S+O+V, still others use O+V+S or O+S+V or even V+O+S, etc. Then which word order is the standard word order?
(3) Esperanto requires adjectives to agree in number and case with the nouns they qualify, so an adjective has four possible endings. There is no real need for this complication, as English--- with its invariable adjectives - shows.
(4)In Esperanto, the construction of some words doesn't accord with the word-building rules. For example, "to federate" in Esperanto is "federi", but "federation" is "federacio", which should be "federo".
(5) Most animal nouns in Esperanto aren't neutral, but masculine nouns. For example, in Esperanto, the word "bovo" means "bull", not "ox".In fact, when we say a thing, we usually needn't indicate its sex. As well as this, there are no neutral personal pronouns in Esperanto.
(6) In Esperanto approximately 70% of words are derived from Latin. This is too big a percentage. Today, as more and more people understand English, it is necessary to absorb more words from English.
Esperanto has a history of more than 100 years, but because of its many defects, its influence is still too limited. Therefore, a new international language, which inherits the good points of Esperanto and overcomes its defects, has been constructed. This is Monda.
9. Does Monda have fixed word endings?
Yes. In Monda there are fixed word endings for nouns,
adjectives, verbs and derivative adverbs.
Nouns have the endings -o ;
Adjectives have the ending -a;
Derivative adverbs have the ending -e;
Verbs have the endings -i for infinitive, -an for present tense, -in for past tense, -on for future tense, -uz for subjunctive, -ez for imperative mood.
10. What are the differences between and common points of Esperanto and Monda?
Monda and Esperanto share many common points:
(1) Nouns have the ending -o;
(2) Adjectives have the ending -a;
(3) Derivative adverbs have the ending -e;
(4) Infinitive verbs have the ending -i;
(5) The pronunciation corresponds with spelling.
The differences between Monda and Esperanto are:
(1) The alphabet of Monda is the same as English and French, whereas in Esperanto there are 6 letters with a circumflex.
(2) The plural nouns end in -oj for Esperanto, but -os or -o for Monda.
(3)In Monda the verbs have the endings -an, -in, -on, -uz, -ez for present, past, future tense, subjunctive and imperative moods ; but in Esperanto they are -as, -is, -os, -us, -u.
(4)Monda, unlike Esperanto, does not assume the male gender as the default, and thus does not define a cow, for example, as a female-bull, as Esperanto does.
(5) In Esperanto, adjectives have number and case inflections; but in Monda, there are no such inflections.
(6) The roots of words in Esperanto come mainly from Latin, whereas the words of Monda come mainly from English, German, French, Spanish and other Indo-European languages.
(7)In Esperanto, there is a Bible: "
11. Why can't Monda be called "Reformed Esperanto"?
Monda has absorbed many good points from Esperanto, but the differences between them are great in terms of alphabet and grammar. The First Universal Congress of Esperanto adopted "The Manifesto of Esperanto" which stipulated that every Esperantist must conform to the grammar laid down in the book "The Foundation of Esperanto". No Esperantist will ever have the right to modify this book. That is why many Esperantists know of some shortcomings in Esperanto, but they fail to correct them. The tradition of Esperanto doesn't recognize "Reformed Esperanto". So Monda is an independent language, not a"Reformed Esperanto".
12. Why do the present, past and future tenses of verbs end in -an, -in, -on and not -as, -is, -os as in Esperanto?
Because: (1) -os is the ending of a plural noun. (2) The present, past and future tenses of active participles end in -ant-, -int-, -ont-. Therefore, it is better to use -an, -in, -on to correspond with them.
13. How much time need I take to master Monda?
A person who knows English, can gain a basic knowledge of
Monda in a few days, or even hours. A single day of study is enough
to get a basic idea so that he or she can read and understand some texts.
14. Is it necessary to remember a large vocabulary?
No. Monda is more economical in this respect than most
languages. The basic vocabulary is extended considerably by adding prefixes and
suffixes. These can be used to make many more words, which therefore do not
need to be remembered separately. This method reduces considerably the need to
remember a large vocabulary. With the
base of three thousand root words, one can combine roots and affixes to
form over thirty thousand words in Monda. For example, mediki = to medicate,
mediko=medicine, medika = medical, medikoro = doctor, and medikeyo =
15. Who created Monda?
Strictly speaking, in the realm of Monda, there are
founders and followers, but there is no creator. Most vocabularies in Monda are
not arbitrarily created, but are derived from the Indo-European language family
(especially from English ). Zamenhof , being the author of Esperanto, was also the
vanguard of Monda. Monda was born in July 2002. The major founder of Monda is
HeYafu, the other founders are Wangli, Qijiaqin, Luoxinxing, Arbsemo, Kulturo,
Chenruihua , Zangyuhai, Niyundong, Zhaozhonghua, Oscar Mifsud , David
Curtis , Dominique Kuster , Matthew Martin, J Duke and Daniel Carrera.
16. What is Mondism?
Monda is not only an international language, but also an international culture and ideology. The fundamental idea of Mondism is that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Mondists consider that along with rapid development of globalization, the global village will realize universal harmony. Internet and Monda will be the two most important instruments to promote universal harmony of the world's peoples. By Internet we shall overcome the technical barriers, by Monda the language barriers.
17. In Monda, the prefix which denote opposite is dis-, why not use mal- as in Esperanto?
Because in English and other languages, the prefix mal- indicate "bad". For example, maltreat, malnutrition, etc. In English, there are many words with the prefix dis- which indicate opposite, eg. disappear, disarm, disinfect, disconnect, disqualify, etc.
18. In Esperanto, there are 16 grammatical rules. Then how many grammatical rules in Monda?
In fact, there are only a dozen grammatical rules in Monda.
The first to the tenth rules are about the article, the nouns, the verbs, the adjectives, the adverbs, the pronouns, the numerals, the prepositions, the conjunctions and the interjections respectively.
The eleventh rule stipulates that the pronunciation of each word corresponds with spelling, and the accent is always on the next to last syllable.
The twelfth rule stipulates that the basic word order is Subject+Verb+Object.
If you know these a dozen of grammatical rules, then you already know almost all grammar in Monda.
19. In Monda, does the pronunciation correspond with spelling?
It is a long-cherished goal but not yet achieved for centuries for the Europeans, that is to use one symbol to represent one pronunciation, and one pronunciation to represent one symbol (i.e. one sound one symbol, one symbol one sound).
For example, in English the combination ea has got as many as 11 pronunciations such as [i:],[a:],[e], [ei], [iei], the phonetic symbol [o:] may also have 11 ways of spelling in words like "raw, form, sauce, chalk, floor, board, quarter, bought" and so on.
French pronunciation is more regular than that of English, even so, a [k] may be spelt as "c, k, qu, ch, cc, ck" such kinds of forms.
Esperanto has realized the "one symbol one sound" theoretically. However, due to some letters with "caps", it is often that two letters are used instead of one in the actual practice of language (e.g. ch takes the place of c^ ), so that it is not yet really "one symbol one sound".
Monda has realized the dream of "one symbol one sound" both theoretically and practically.