Basic Grammar of Mondlango

The Article

There is only one article in Mondlango --the definite article la .

The usage  of la is similar to that of "the" in English.

La is the same for singular and plural and for all genders.

There is no indefinite articles in Mondlango. If we want to emphasize one ,we can use the numeral un. If we want to emphasize indefinite, we can use the indefinite pronoun iu.

For example: Donez la libro al mi. ( Give me the book.)

Donez un libro al mi. ( Give me a book.)

Nouns

   In Mondlango, Nouns in the singular end in -o: libro=book, domo=house.

    The plural of a noun is made by adding -s to the singular:

    libros=books, domos=houses.

Note: The plural form is optional, for example: tri domo = tri domos.

  A noun can function as:

  1. The subject of a verb:
    Tomo arivin.= Tom arrived.

  2. The complement of the verb esi:
    Tomo esan workoro.= Tom is a worker.

  3.The object of a verb:
    Mi vidin Tomo.= I saw Tom.

  4. The object of a preposition:
   Mi dirin al Tomo.= I spoke to Tom.

  In Mondlango, most word roots are neutral. For example, bovo=ox, bovulo=bull, bovino=cow, bovido=calf, bovaco=beef.

Adjectives

   Adjectives end in -a: guda=good, biga=big.

Adjectives in Mondlango have the same form for singular and plural, masculine and feminine nouns:
biga domo = a big house    biga domos = big houses
guda kidulo =a good boy    guda kidino =a good girl

Adjectives may be placed either before or after the noun which they qualify. For example, guda libro or libro guda.

Comparison: Adjectives form their comparatives and superlatives by putting mor and most before the positive:
mor alta = taller      most alta = tallest
mor interesa =more interesting      most interesa = most interesting

Adverbs

Adverbs indicate the way in which an action is done. In Mondlango, adverbs are mostly derived from adjectives by changing the ending to -e. Examples:

guda=good, gude=well, vera=true, vere=truly.

Adverbs respond to the question Kiel (How). Examples:

kiel yi faran?   How do you do?

Bone, dankan yi!   Fine, thank you!

Correlative adverbs

     Mondlango        English
Ial for some reason
Iel somehow
Iam sometime
Ie somewhere
Iom some quantity
Kial why
Kiel how
Kiam when
Kie where
Kiom how much
Tial therefore
Tiel that way
Tiam at that time
Tie in that place
Tiom that much
Cial for every reason
Ciel by all means
Ciam for ever
Cie everywhere
Ciom all quantities
Nial for no reason
Niel in no way
Niam never
Nie nowhere
Niom nothing

Other Adverbs:

Mondlango

English

anke also
apene hardly
ayn any
balde soon
even even
for off
jus just
maksime at most
minime at least
mor more
most most
ne no
nun now
nur only
ofte often
plu further
preske almost
seldom seldom
tre very
tro too
tuy at once
yam already
yes yes
yet yet

Verbs

Verbs in the infinitive end in -i: iri=to go, vidi=to see.

The present tense is formed by replacing -i by -an: iran=go, vidan=see.

The past tense is formed with the ending -in: irin=went, vidin=saw.

The future tense is formed with the ending -on: iron=will go, vidon=will see.

The conditional uses the ending -uz: 
If mi esuz yi.=If I were you.

The imperative ending is -ez: Sidez!=Sit down! Venez!=Come!

The active present participle uses the ending -anta:
fluganta birdos=flying birds, 
leganta studento=a student who is reading.

Use of the letters a, i, and o to indicate present ,past and future, as in the endings -an, -in and -on is applied also to the active and passive participles.

The ending -inta forms the active past participle: 
fluginta birdos=birds which have flown.
leginta studento=a student who has read.

Similarly the ending -onta produces the active future participle:
flugonta birdos=birds which will fly.
legonta studento=a student who will read.

The ending -ata gives the present passive participle:
libro legata=a book that is being read.

The past passive participle has the ending -ita:
libro legita=a book that has been read.

The future passive participle has the ending -ota:
libro legota=a book that is to be read.

Compound Tenses (Active Voice)

Continuous Perfect Future
Present esan leganta esan leginta esan legonta
Past esin leganta esin leginta esin legonta
Future eson leganta eson leginta eson legonta
Infinitive esi leganta esi leginta esi legonta

Compound Tenses (Passive Voice)

Continuous Perfect Future
Present esan legata esan legita esan legota
Past esin legata esin legita esin legota
Future eson legata eson legita eson legota
Infinitive esi legata esi legita esi legota

For example, if we already know:

Ciumorne mi legan jurnalo je la 8-u.(Every morning I read newspapers at eight o'clock)

Then we can derive the following sentences:

Ciutage je la 7-u mi esan legonta jurnalo.

Ciutage je la 8-u mi esan leganta jurnalo.

Ciutage je la 9-u mi esan leginta jurnalo.


Hiere je la 7-u mi esin legonta jurnalo.

Hiere je la 8-u mi esin leganta jurnalo.

Hiere je la 9-u mi esin leginta jurnalo.


Morge je la 7-u mi eson legonta jurnalo.

Morge je la 8-u mi eson leganta jurnalo.

Morge je la 9-u mi eson leginta jurnalo.

Notes: 

1.It is possible to build various compound tenses but simple forms are preferred.

2. The conditional and imperative endings are optional.

Pronouns

Personal pronouns:

            Mondlango   English
mi  I
yi  you (singular)
hi  he
xi she
ji  it
li he or she
mu we
yu you (plural)
hu  they (the plural of he )
xu  they (the plural of she )
ju  they (the plural of it)
lu  they (the plural of he or she)

Possessive adjectives are formed by adding the ending -a to the personal pronouns:

mia=my, hia=his, mua=our, hua=their

Possessive pronouns are formed by adding the ending -s to the possessive adjectives:

mias=mine, xias=hers, muas=ours, huas=theirs

Reflexive pronouns: (personal pronoun )+self:

miself=myself     hiself=himself
miself=ourselves     huself=themselves

If necessary, personal pronounces have accusative case which are
formed by adding the ending -m to the pronouns. 
For example: hi=he, him=him, mi=I, mim=me.
Correlative pronouns
 Mondlango   English
Io something
Iu somebody
Ia some kind of
Ius somebody's
Kio what
Kiu who
Kia what kind of
Kius whose
Tio that thing
Tiu that person
Tia that kind of
Tius that person's
Cio everything
Ciu each one
Cia every kind of
Cius everybody's
Nio nothing
Niu nobody
Nia no kind of
Nius nobody's

Numerals

Cardinal numbers

  Arabic    Mondlango
1 un
2 bi
3 tri
4 kwar
5 kwin
6 siks
7 sep
8 ok
9 nef
10 dek
11 dek-un
12 dek-bi
13 dek-tri
20 bidek
21 bidek-un
22 bidek-bi
30 tridek
33 tridek-tri
40 kwardek
100 cent
101 cent-un
110 cent-dek
123 cent-bidek-tri
234 bicent-tridek-kwar
1000 mil
1234 mil-bicent-tridek-kwar
10000 dek-mil
23456 bidek-trimil-kwarcent-kwindek-siks
100000 cent-mil
1000000 miliono
1000000000 bilinono

Ordinal numbers

Ordinal numbers are formed by adding the ending -u to the cardinal numbers: unu=first, biu=second, triu=third.

Prepositions

  Mondlango   English
Al to, towards
Alen into
En in
Sur on
Super over
Antaw before
Pos after
Sub under or below
Inter between
Apud beside
Cirkum around
Ekster outside
El from
Krom besides
Escept except
Dum during
Ce at
Ye on, in
Je at, on
Til until
Kum with
Sen without
Per by
De of
Ekde since
For off
Por for
Pro because of
Pri about, on
Tra through
Trans across
Konter against
Da (quantitative prep.)
Insted instead of
Law according to
Spite in spite of
Versus versus
Ep up
Dawn down

Conjunctions

Mondlango

English

ay and
car because
do then
dum during
if if
ke that
kwankam although
kwaz quasi
nek...nor neither...nor
ne nur...sed anke not only...but also
or or
sed but
tamen nevertheless
tial therefore
til until

Interjections

Mondlango

English

Adiu! Adieu!
Ah! Ah!
Ho ve! Alas!
Hu ra! Hurrah!
Helo! Hello!
Hey! Hey!
Fi! Fie!
Mm. Mm.
Okey! Okay!
Ve! Alas!

Conjunctions and interjections have no fixed word-endings.

Syntax

In Mondlango, the basic word order is:

subject + verb + object

In order to transform the affirmative sentences (He is a teacher.) into interrogative sentences (Is he a teacher?) in Mondlango it is not necessary to change the word order. There is no inversion in Mondlango, so we simply put the particle "Cu " at the beginning of the affirmative sentence. This particle is not translated since it is equivalent to a question mark. In this way we know, in writing as well as in speaking, that we are dealing with a question.

Active voice: La kato manjan la muso.

             (The cat eats the mouse.)

Passive voice: La muso esan manjata de la kato.

             (The mouse is eaten by the cat.)

Interrogative: Cu la kato manjan la muso?

             (Does the cat eat the mouse?)

Homepage