Lesson Ten       Deku Lesono

1. New words (Nova wordos)

skribi  to write    konstrui  to construct    perdi  to lose

lovi  to love    kondemni  to condemn      egzami  to examine

2. Text (Teksto)

La fenetro esan fermota de Maria. The window is going to be closed by Maria.

La fenetro esan fermata de Maria. The window is closed by Maria.

La fenetro esan fermita de Maria. The window has been closed by Maria.

La fenetro esin fermota de Maria. The window was about to be closed by Maria.

La fenetro esin fermata de Maria. The window was closed by Maria.

La fenetro esin fermita de Maria. The window had been closed by Maria.

Nova lesono eson edukota de Maria. A new lesson is going to be taught by Maria.

Nova lesono eson edukata de Maria. A new lesson will be taught by Maria.

Nova lesono eson edukita de Maria. A new lesson will have been taught by Maria.

3. Grammar (Gramatiko)

In the previous lesson we studied the verbs that are formed with active participles which make the "active voice".

We shall now see those that are formed with passive participles, which make the "passive voice".

The PASSIVE VOICE is formed with the auxiliary ESI and the passive participle of the main verb, whose endings are:

future: -ota,  present: -ata,  past: -ita.

The subject in passive voice is called "patient", because it "suffers" or receives passively the action indicated by the verb. The agent of the action is preceded by the preposition DE (by, of).

A sentence in active voice can be transformed into passive voice and vice versa. When we transform a sentence in active voice into passive voice, the subject of the sentence becomes the agent (preceded by the preposition DE), and the direct object of the active voice becomes the subject (patient) of the passive voice. Example:

Active voice: Hi esan skribanta letero. (He is writing a letter).

Passive voice: Letero esan skribata de him. (A letter is written by him).

The passive participles can also perform functions as adjectives, nouns, or adverbs.

Examples of adjectives

Present: -ata

Domo konstruata (a house in construction, being built)

Past: -ita

La perdita tempo (the time lost)

Future: -ota

Legota libro (a book that will be read)

Examples of nouns

Present: -ato

La lovato (the loved one)

Past : -ito

La kondamnito (the condemned)

Future: -oto

La egzamoto (the person that will be examined)

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